Here are the raw images with parts of the Independent/irrelevant left half taken out.
Top metal removed (using hydrofluoric acid):
M1 removed (using hydrofluoric acid):
Stripped to active areas (yet more hydrofluoric acid):
P1 and P2 is this circuits I/O. Supply labels are from tracing from the power pads which I got from the 24C02 datasheet. Alternatively you could trace from the PCB or recognize that PMOS tends to be larger than NMOS (note 2:1 contact ratio). I'm not sure why the capacitors are isolated as they are all tied together in parallel. Maybe some sort of DFM thing? Unlink the other resistors which were smaller and resembled more of a depletion load design, this resistor (R3) is just a very long and narrowish active area.
Anyway, I then labeled every transistor, resistor, and capacitor so ease schematic capture. Then I placed them in EESchema in rough layout order and finally wired together from reading the inkscape plot. This yielded:
And then rearranging to be a little easier to read:
The next circuit is more interesting. Lets start by taking a steady state approach to see what it does. When logic 1 is presented as input we get the following:
But wait, there's more! Lets see what happens in between. Lets treat this as a discrete event simulator where each gate turns on in constant time. Switching input to 0:
So we have a device that preserves steady state and removes short pulses that swing in the opposite direction. Such a device is called a Schmitt trigger. I was able to verify this by finding this paper which had the following diagram:
Which looks exactly like this circuit.
Putting it all together we get the following:
According to http://smithsonianchips.si.edu/ice/cd/STR98/EEPROM.PDF page 40, their similar ST chip says what I thought was M1 is actually poly (hey, its a learning exercise!). I'll see if I can run some etch tests to confirm this. A friend is working on doing a teardown of the EEPROM structure and I came across that while looking through previous work. They don't go into gory detail though so he'll still do a writeup.
Thanks for the comments on the capacitors! I'm working on a writeup of the charge pump so there are a lot more to come ;)